Tired? Legs Jerk at Night? Seniors with PLMD: Periodic Leg Movement Disorder Causes Daytime Sleepiness in Elderly

Many seniors think they are sleeping at night only to awaken tired every day for years because their legs jerk and interrupt their sleep. These involuntary leg movements may be due to PLMD. Some seniors are aware of the sleep disorder and may also experience Restless Leg Syndrome in the daytime but assume that treatment is not available. Others may attribute daytime fatigue to getting older, but chronic fatigue and daytime sleepiness is not a normal change of aging.

What is Periodic Leg (or Limb) Movements Disorder?

Half of seniors are affected by PLMD, formerly called nocturnal myoclonus, which is a neurological condition that occurs after a person goes to sleep. Muscles involuntarily jerk rhythmically and repetitively every 15 to 45 seconds on one or both sides of the body. These motions are similar to those in some types of seizure activity. Common joints involved with PLMD include:

  • Hip
  • Knee
  • Ankle
  • Big toe
  • Arms

The motions might be subtle to quite dramatic. Each moving episode lasts for about two seconds. There may have periods in which the person sleeps for a period of time without the jerking movements but the movements may continue again in clusters, particularly during the first half of the night during the non-REM phase of sleep, according to the Harvard Health Publications article entitled “Movement disorders and parasomnias.” For example, if a person with PLMD experiences jerking sensations every 30 seconds for an eight hour night, he might move nearly 1,000 times that night. These movements can disturb sleep cycles but may not fully awaken the person with PLMD.

 According to a 2015 Harvard Health Publications article in Improving Sleep: A Guide to Getting a Good Night’s Rest entitled “Movement Disorders in Sleep” mentions that PLMD affects approximately 50% of seniors. Many cases are undiagnosed and leave the senior suffering from fatigue, daytime sleepiness, and strained relationships with a bed partner who may be kept awake from movements, shaking of the bed, or being kicked or hit repetitively. People who are chronically sleep deprived may begin to fall asleep during the day without realizing it, which can be particularly dangerous if the person is driving at the time.

Causes and Diagnosis of PLMD

Some people with PLMD have no known cause, which is called primary PLMD. Secondary PLMD has a known cause, and symptoms of PLMD may improve if the cause is treated. Diabetes and kidney failure are commonly associated with PLMD. Low iron levels and anemia may cause PLMD, and correcting the deficiency seems to greatly help symptoms. A gluten-free diet may improve symptoms in a person with iron deficiency due to celiac disease. Spinal cord injuries, spinal cord tumors, and sleep apnea may also be associated with Periodic Limb Movement Disorder. Some medications, such as certain antidepressants, may worsen symptoms.

A physician will usually take a detailed history related to fatigue, sleep deprivation, and possible causes. Reports from someone in the household who has witnessed these jerking motions can greatly help, and sometimes a polysomnography (sleep lab study) is ordered in order to observe and document the person’s movements during sleep.

Treatment for PLMD

According to the WebMD article last edited on January 1, 2007 by Leonard J. Sonne, MD entitled “Periodic Limb Movement Disorder,” at least eighty percent of people with Periodic Limb Movement Disorder also have Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). People with RLS experience uncomfortable feelings in the legs relieved by movement when the person is awake.

Hope for a Better Night’s Sleep

Approximately 50% of seniors experience PLMD. Many experience chronic daytime sleepiness and fatigue and have no idea why. Some may know of the jerking movements but assume that no effective treatment is available. Many seniors with PLMD can be helped by simple strategies used for Restless Leg Syndrome and perhaps medications used to treat RLS. Treatment can greatly improve quality of life for the person experiencing PLMD and for anyone sleeping in the same bed.

This article is for informational purposes and is not intended to be medical advice. Contact your healthcare provider regarding specific concerns related to insomnia, fatigue, and abnormal sleep habits.

How to Honor a Father Who is Deceased

Father’s Day and other special days of the year may bring back personal memories of a late father. Whether he died years ago or recently, suddenly or over a long period of time, those recollections may be channeled into ways to preserve special memories for oneself and others as well as generations in the future. Find practical ways to continue a special dad’s legacy through preserving memories and providing service to others.

Special Memories of a Father

Whether the special man was a biological father, step-father, foster dad, grandfather who served as a father figure, or a friend who stepped in to be like a dad, remembering a father can be a deeply personal experience that some may wish to keep private while others may wish to share with those around them.

Many fondest memories of a dad may be of simple times spent together. Perhaps it was time spent together roofing a house or under the hood of a car. Maybe a fishing trip, camping trip, mowing the yard, or a simple hug that stands out as an ordinary time that has become special in hindsight. Even a message on the answering machine or personal email might become precious after a father’s passing.

Times that might not have been funny at the time might bring a smile to one’s face later. Perhaps a father’s pet peeve such as a string trimmer that never wanted to start or the car that always broke down somehow became humorous as the story was retold. Maybe a certain expressions or even bad habits might become dear as one recollects how those memories served to shape one’s own view of a father.

A father’s personality may be particularly memorable and might have helped to shape the mannerisms of his children. For example, some fathers might have always been very calm in the face of any adversity while others might have worked diligently with a strong work ethic. Perhaps the dad was able to problem-solve any given situation or find a way to save money when the needs seemed to overwhelm the budget.

Memories of a father might be preserved through many media, such as:

  • recording thoughts on paper
  • making a traditional or digital scrapbook
  • typing memories into a computerized document
  • creating a blog or web site in memory of a father
  • saving and labeling pictures of a dad
  • recording memories on tape, CD, or video
  • reminiscing about a father – readers may wish to read about ideas for a reminiscing session related to fathers
  • reading books about fathers to children in the family
  • visiting places of significance to a late father

How to Turn a Father’s Memory into a Lasting Legacy

Honoring a father’s memory by passing on his legacy to others may provide a way to not only continue his memory but also to help a person to work through the grief of loss in a productive way. Each father is different and unique, and ways to honor a late dad can be just as special. Some examples of ways to pass on a father’s memory to others might include:

  • donating money to a cause the father considered worthwhile
  • creating a scholarship in a father’s memory
  • providing a community service using skills a father passed down
  • capturing others’ memories of a special father for others to enjoy
  • finding ways to honor other veterans if the father served in the military
  • visiting with friends, family members, or others who had connections with the father
  • donating a deceased father’s organs or tissues to someone in need
  • speaking with family members about one’s own wishes for end of life care
  • donating money toward research to help others with health issues that affected the father

Even shortcomings of a strained relationship between a father and his child or children might be useful for those who wish to work toward a improved relationships. For example, people might learn new ways of handling stress, how to more effectively apologize and/or ask for forgiveness, or learn more effective communication skills. Perhaps family fights or schedules that always seem too busy for family time might be replaced with healthier relationships and schedules.

Unique Ways to Honor a Late Father

Although a father’s death can be quite difficult, people can find ways to honor a father and to help others to see him as a unique a special man. Recording memories in private or to share with others may have a healing quality. Service projects and other special activities may help to memorialize a father and provide a way to honor causes and a special man that was called a father.

Readers may also wish to read How to Honor a Mother Who is Deceased.

Readers are welcome to give examples of how they have honored their own father in the comment section below.

Implementing a worksite health promotion program: Improved health can lead to greater productivity and morale

Recent media reports have indicated that, as a result of the global credit crunch and due to the stress of redundancy threats and increased job and company insecurity, employees are experiencing increased cardiovascular disease risks, mental illness risks and in some cases death from suicide. Although funding for new programs is difficult to obtain in the current financial climate, there are some low cost initiatives that can be implemented in order to improve the health of staff.

Before embarking on a company wide health promotion project, it is important to assess the needs and wants of the staff. Undertaking a needs analysis will enable you to find out whether staff are interested in low cost fitness initiatives or whether a stress management program, including individual or group counseling sessions, is of more interest. After completing the needs analysis, you will be in a position to undertake budgeting and economic impact forecasts. Judging the economic impact of a worksite health promotion program can be difficult task, however two of the major forms of economic impact analysis have traditionally been used – cost benefit analysis and cost effectiveness analysis.

Potential worksite health promotion projects that can be developed at a low cost include:-

  • walking groups
  • cycle to work groups
  • health education sessions (many health charities have free or low cost community education speakers)
  • stress management through counseling, encouraging work-life balance and listening to the concerns of employees.

In order for a worksite health promotion project to be considered a success, it must be adopted and owned by the employees of the company. Employee engagement can be obtained by including employees in all stages of the project’s development from the needs analysis through to evaluation of the program’s effectiveness. If you have employees who have particular skills, perhaps in a sport or other recreational pursuit, they may be encouraged to become part of the health promotion program in a leadership role.

Another important way to engage employees in the health promotion program is through the use of communication. Regular communication and modeling of healthy behaviours by managerial staff can result in increased uptake of the health promotion program by lower level employees.

Attempting to improve the health of employees has various benefits for companies, including decreased absenteeism and health care costs, increased productivity of employees and improved employee health behavior choices. An effective worksite health promotion program which engages employees and speaks to their concerns may also improve the generalized morale of the workplace.

Is There A Cure For Fibromyalgia?

Are you currently suffering with widespread muscle pain, joint pain, and fatigue? Well, it is possible that you are dealing with fibromyalgia. In fact, you might be surprised to learn that fibromyalgia is the second most common condition in the world that impacts the bones and muscles. Even though this condition is so well-known, it is often times misdiagnosed and misunderstood. Most individuals will say that fibromyalgia is an autoimmune or inflammatory condition. Others have said that the condition arises when there is an unusual amount of lactic acid in the muscles tissue. But, the truth of the matter is that doctors aren’t sure what causes this disease.

You are probably wondering are there viable fibromyalgia treatment options available? Unfortunately, as of right now, there is no known cure. However, with stress management, exercise, medications, and healthy habits you can learn to live with this condition.

How Is Fibromyalgia Diagnosed?

Even though fibromyalgia impacts such a large portion of the population, it is still extremely difficult for doctors to diagnose. There really isn’t any test that can determine if this is the disease that you are actually suffering from or not. Instead, your doctor will try to determine your condition by asking you about your past medical issues along with the medical conditions of your close family. Fibromyalgia can be extremely difficult to diagnose because a lot of the symptoms are very similar to a variety of other conditions like lupus, thyroid conditions, and arthritis.

This means that doctors have to perform x-rays, a blood test, and other tests to rule out these other illnesses.

Practice Proper Exercise Routines

When it comes to living with fibromyalgia, one of the most effective treatments to deal with the pain is exercise. Exercise can both ease the pain and the fatigue symptoms associated with the condition. Patients with this condition have suggested that walking and swimming are two exercises that are extremely beneficial. As much as 20 to 30 minutes of walking or swimming at least 2 to 3 days a week will be sufficient enough to help you battle the condition. Resistance training can be very effective as well. However, if you have never practiced resistance training before, you might need to consult with a trainer in order to learn about the proper methods and techniques.

Eating A Healthy Diet

Individuals that suffer from fibromyalgia often times have a low vitamin D count. When vitamin D is low in your body, it can actually increase the intensity of the pain and bring on a variety of other symptoms. This can be best countered by making sure that you are consuming nutrient-rich foods. This will not only provide you with more energy, but it can help combat numerous other health conditions as well.

Caffeine is something that you want to avoid at all costs when dealing with fibromyalgia. While caffeine can make you feel more alert and give you more energy, it can also put you on edge and make it much harder to sleep. Take steps to stick with a healthy diet and there is a good chance that your fibromyalgia will improve before you know it!

Tips for Finding Natural Anti-Wrinkle Skin Cream: Anti-Aging Creme Works Wonders!

With just one glance at the health and beauty shelves, individuals will find hundreds of anti-aging products. With this many on the market, determining which one to use can be difficult. Since anti-aging crème works wonders, most individuals have one type or another – even if it’s not the right kind for their skin. Below, individuals will receive some important tips for finding natural anti-wrinkle skin cream.

Look for Natural Ingredients in Skin Cream

When searching for natural anti-wrinkle skin cream, individuals should read the ingredients on the label. It’s important to look for natural ingredients that are known to stop the signs of aging. Pure, unrefined shea butter is one of the best anti-aging ingredients in existence. Other ingredients found in the kind of anti-aging crème that works wonders include aloe vera, vitamins A, C and E. By ensuring that the skin cream purchased contains great natural ingredients, one can judge the effectiveness of the skin cream before using it.

Compare Prices for Anti-Aging Skin Cream

While it’s not necessary for an individual to purchase the most expensive brand of skin cream available, it’s important to pay attention to the price. Typically, skin creams that cost next to nothing aren’t going to have the amazing ingredients that actually work. Most of the time, individuals should stick to middle ground, choosing a skin cream that isn’t super cheap or outrageously expensive. This ensures that there are most likely some great ingredients in the cream and that the individual isn’t just paying for the brand name.

Find Ingredients that Will Work for Your Issues

Different people experience different problems with their skin. Due to genetics and environment, there are a number of different skin problems that plague individuals. Different ingredients target these issues in different ways. For instance, vitamin K works wonders for dark circles and puffy eyes while shea butter targets acne, and fine lines and wrinkles. It’s important to find the skin cream that contains ingredients that will work for specific individuals rather than relying on a general type of skin cream. Anti-aging skin cream works wonders when it’s specifically chosen for an individual and his or her problems. To learn more, visit Secret Anti-Aging Solutions.com.

Read Honest Reviews of Skin Care Products

One great way to determine which products work and which ones are simply backed by ad campaigns with a bunch of smoke and mirrors, individuals should read reviews of skincare products. There are typically a plethora of reviews available online, which are written by real customers who have tried a specific product. Search for reviews for anti-aging products and find out which customers have experienced the most success and what product they were using.

By using the tips above, individuals can find natural anti aging skin crème that does its job and creates younger-looking, healthier and fresher skin.

Tips for Losing Pregnancy Weight: Advice for New Moms Struggling with Postpartum Weight Loss

It can be hard to feel the desire or find the time for personal care when struggling to adapt to life postpartum. Many new moms may be so focused on the infant that trying to find the time to exercise seems like a hopeless endeavor. Breastfeeding moms may find dieting difficult, as they need to take in an additional 300 calories a day just to nourish their baby. Learning how to lose the pregnancy weight can be a challenge, but one worth taking on.

Set an Achievable Goal

The first thing new moms should keep in mind when trying to lose weight after pregnancy is that it can take time. Fitness levels, lifestyles and personal metabolisms can make a different time table for everyone. A new mom, who was on bed rest and as a result has a poor fitness level, is going to take longer to get back in shape than a woman who was able to power walk four miles a day until she gave birth.

Take into account how much weight needs to be lost, current fitness levels and how easy or difficult it was to lose weight in the past before setting a timeline to lose the weight. It can be helpful to keep a goal in mind for fitting back into pre-pregnancy pants, but make sure that it’s a goal that can be easily reached, not one that will lead to a sense of failure.

Walk With the Baby

As soon as physically able, begin walking with the baby. If the weather is nice, put the baby in a stroller for a short time each day and get some fresh air and exercise. If the weather is poor, try taking the baby to a mall, museum or other large indoor area. Wearing the baby in a carrier while walking inside public places can be beneficial in these cases as it discourages strangers from touching the baby, adds the baby’s weight to the mom’s, making the walk more strenuous, and avoids the challenge of maneuvering a stroller through crowds.

Try to walk a little more each week, stretching fitness levels gently. Athletically inclined moms can begin running as soon as they are physically able, and all moms and babies can benefit from some fresh air and time spent together outside.

Take a Mommy and Me Yoga Class

Many hospitals offer “Mommy and Me” yoga classes for new moms. Typically recommended to begin at least four to six weeks postpartum, Mommy and Me yoga classes offer gentle stretching and toning for new moms. Babies can be held during the poses, or laid on the mat beside mom, helping to increase bonding while helping mom get started on her postpartum weight loss journey.

Don’t Starve

The postpartum period is a difficult time of adjustment both for the mind and for the body. Hormone levels are returning to normal, organs are shifting back into place, and the body is trying to figure out how much food it requires now that it’s not nourishing the baby. Trying to cut back too much on calories during this time period can actually cause the body to hang on to the pregnancy weight longer, particularly if breastfeeding. Remember to eat a healthy, well balanced diet to have enough energy to care for the baby and get some exercise.


Stress can cause the body to produce more of the hormone cortisol, which can cause the metabolism to slow down, and the body to retain weight. Don’t get discouraged if the weight is slow to come off. It took nine months to put it on, and it won’t come off over night. Relax, and enjoy the baby, take the time to exercise and discover what the postpartum body is capable of. The weight will come off, but much slower if the new mom is unable to relax.

If a great deal of weight needs to be lost, be sure to speak with a doctor about an appropriate diet and exercise plan. If after a year, the weight is still not budging, it may be time to follow up with a doctor to rule out any other underlying conditions. Remember that a new mother’s body has just spent nine months undergoing many changes and that caring for a newborn will cause it to go through many more. Relax and enjoy the baby; the weight is not as important as this.

The Wild Turkey: Successful Reintroduction to Connecticut

Loss of Turkeys from New England

Fifty years ago, seeing wild turkeys was a rare and exciting event. The birds had been extirpated from most New England states, including Connecticut in the 1800s as a result of unrestricted hunting and habitat loss. Elsewhere in the Northeast, they had either been eliminated or became extremely wary after being hunted by farmers and subsistence hunters, and disappeared when hikers appeared – even in states in which they were still surviving. Today, turkeys are common across the Northeast except in extremely urban areas of our cities. Yet one stopped traffic in 2014 when it was observed casually strolling down a major road on Staten Island, a borough of New York City.

Turkey Reintroduction

According to the Connecticut Wildlife Agency, turkeys were reestablished in Connecticut when Connecticut obtained 22 wild turkeys from New York State in 1975 and released them in the northwestern corner of the state. Since then all of the towns in the state have developed thriving populations and there are an estimated 30,000 turkeys now living in Connecticut. According to the Connecticut website, Massachusetts obtained several wild turkeys from Connecticut to successfully reestablish its turkey population. Although now very common and often seen in backyards, most people still get a thrill when they find them along a forest trail.

Turkey Mating Behavior

Toms gather in bands and strut in front of aggregations of nonchalant hens. Males in a group are usually brothers and display communally to attract females into the harem.

Who are the Fathers

Alan Krakauer showed that only one male in a group fathers the offspring. Why should his brothers bother to help? One possible answer is that by helping their brother mate, they increase the number of offspring produced by their family – a behavior known as kin selection. Without helpers, a single tom has no chance to reproduce.

Raising the Poults

Nests are placed directly on the ground and unguarded nests and sitting hens are preyed on by dogs, coyotes, raccoons, and great horned owls. When the poults (young) are able to fly (about 28 days), the hens bring the poults together into creches of up to fifty or more poults and six to ten hens – some of which have no offspring. Creches provide hens the benefit of having more adults to watch the young, search for predators and for feeding and roosting sites. Inexperienced hens learn how to take care of young without being totally responsible for their care. When Carl Stamm (Retired from Connecticut Wildlife) monitored several hens, he found they raise up to eighteen young each year (personal communication).

When Winter Comes

In the fall, the young toms (called Jakes) leave the creches, band together, and face the winter on their own. Young hens remain with their mothers and search for males in the spring. The Jakes display in their first spring, but are usually unsuccessful in attracting hens for several years until they learn the finer points of the mating game.

Why the Turkey is not our National Bird

Wild turkeys display faithfulness to their brothers, sisters, and offspring. They are exceedingly wary and difficult to hunt. Prepared properly, the meat is delicious and nutritious. Benjamin Franklin wanted to establish the turkey as our national bird. He felt it was more noble than a thieving, carrion-eating raptor. But he was outvoted by a cadre of bellicose insurgents pleased to have stolen an entire country from their king. Thus, our national bird became the bald eagle, a symbol of war; rather than the wild turkey, a symbol of strong familial attachments.

The best methods to improve your mental health further

Everyone these days seeks how to be physically fit and mentally sharp. They have to follow the best diet plan and do exercises day after day. If they understand their requirements to enhance the mental health further, then they have to be conscious on several things. They have to exercise their brain by playing brain games and some puzzles. Players of puzzles and brainteasers these days get the most expected assistance for enhancing their mind. You can comb your hair, brush your teeth and do other normal activities with your non-dominant hand. You will get an excellent enhancement in your mind as awaited.

People who are physically active can improve their mind without any difficulty. You have to do simple yet effective physical exercises in the morning or evening day after day. This is advisable to vary your activities on a regular basis and get rid of obstacles in a path towards the improved mind. A healthy diet does not fail to improve every area of the brain within a short time. You can consume foods rich in Omega 3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA after you have planned to boost up your mental health. These foods reduce the dementia risk and improve memory.

Socialization is one of the most recommended and successful techniques to enhance the brain health. All human beings in the world are social animals. Everyone needs different brain simulations like social activities to keep the mind as sharp as possible. They can improve the physical and cognitive health further when they socialize. If you sleep well, then you can feel energetic and sharp mind as expected. If you suffer from undesirable effects on your sleep pattern in recent times, then you have to contact your doctor and get the best treatment to sleep. You will improve your brain functions when you sleep properly.